The misinterpreted “Intellectual Property” clause of the U.S. Constitution (Art. I, §8, cl. 8) grants Congress the power to “promote the Progress of Science” by securing exclusive rights to Authors for their “Writings.” Its parallel clause states that exclusive rights should accrue to Inventors in the “useful Arts” for their “Discoveries.”

At first blush, authoring

Every generation tackles old problems anew.  Abject homelessness, “radicalized” socialists, tyrant capitalists, gilded-age life-styles and monopolistic practices may seem like current news, but they were omnipresent in the first Gilded Age in California, circa the 1890s.

A “naturalistic” writer, Frank Norris, surveyed this landscape through his novel The Octopus: A Story of California (1901).  Its